Determining the Ovicidal Capabilities of Allicin, S-allyl Cysteine, and Pumpkin Seed Oil for Mitigation of Haemonchus contortus Infections in Goats
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Anthelmintic drugs are widely used treatment options to control gastrointestinal nematodes found in ruminants worldwide. These gastrointestinal nematodes are becoming increasingly resistant towards these drugs, prior to novel anthelmintic development. One of those parasites, Haemonchus contortus, has proven resistant to available anthelmintics, developing new mechanisms of resistance at a rapid pace. This resistance has led to major economic losses worldwide due to haemonchosis. In an attempt to determine athelmintic alternatives and help decrease developing resistance, researchers and producers are turning toward botanical alternatives with documented anthelmintic properties. For this study, it was proposed that plant extracts derived from garlic (allicin, S-allyl cysteine) and pumpkin seeds (PSO) would exhibit ovicidal capabilities in vitro, when H. contortus eggs were exposed to these extracts. Egg hatch inhibition tests were conducted using these plant extracts. Allicin and S-allyl cysteine exhibited the strongest ovicidal effects at a 4% v/v concentration and 8.7% v/v concentration, respectively. Allicin at the 4% concentration averaged 55% of eggs inhibited from hatching over eight days, while S-allyl cysteine at an 8.7% concentration averaged 43% of eggs inhibited. PSO showed modest inhibition over eight days at the 4% concentration, averaging 24% of eggs inhibited from hatching. These plant extracts could benefit producers needing viable alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics for mitigating anthelmintic-resistant H. contortus infections in their goat herds.