A Transactive Energy Approach for Design and Operation of Battery Swap and Supercharging Infrastructure
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Transactive energy refers to the planning and control of the two-way energy flow between distributed generation and main grid in regards to the realization of economic benefits. This study addresses two research questions related to transactive energy operations: first, how to allocate renewable microgrid system to energize the battery swap and supercharging stations under demand and supply uncertainty? Second, is it economically feasible for wind turbines (WT), solar photovoltaics (PV), and energy storage system (ESS) to participate in day-ahead transactive energy market as virtual power plants? An optimization framework for sizing and siting WT, PV and ESS in a battery swap and supercharging network considering both island and grid-tied operations is proposed. Mixed integer linear programming models are formulated to minimize the annualized battery service infrastructure cost considering facility setup, spare batteries, and supercharger installs. For island microgrid, reducing the cost of ESS does not significantly stimulate its adoption because renewable generation largely depends on capacity factor of PV and WT is shown. In grid-tied microgrid operation, reducing the PV cost by 50% makes the system to install more panels in both sunny cities and windy cities is shown. For network model, the work shows that by reducing the PV capacity cost by 75% from the benchmark cost makes the system choose more PV for Texas cities and reduces the annual network cost by 29%. The system opts to behave as “prosumer” who fulfills the charging demand of vehicle fleet as well as enhancing grid reliability and security by participating in transactive energy market.