Olfactory-immuno Pathway of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus and Yersinia ruckeri in Rainbow Trout
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Aquatic pathogens, such as Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) and Yersinia ruckeri, contribute to disease in commercial and wild farms worldwide. These pathogens are highly contagious and frequently cause disease in rainbow trout by infecting them through external tissues, like the gills or skin. Another external tissue, the olfactory organ, is highly susceptible to infection due to the direct contact with the microbe-rich environment. Although the olfactory organ is primarily responsible for detecting environment stimuli, novel research has implicated that olfactory sensory cells also play a key role in early pathogen detection and immune cell activation. Specifically, research has elucidated that IHNV can utilize the olfactory organ as route of entry. However, it is unclear if bacteria act similarly, and we currently lack information regarding the higher levels of integration within the nervous system of rainbow trout. The purpose of this study is to unravel the olfactory pathway involved in the detection of pathogens and the activation of physiological and behavioral responses.