Exploring the Facts of the Digital Divide in Texas Public Schools Grades K-12
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The purpose of this research is to explore differences in levels of technology integration in Texas school districts grades K-12. Despite intervention at the state and federal level, there is a perception that a digital divide exists in school district technology integration by geographic location, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. This research uses survey data completed by 5,007 Texas school principals during the 2002-2003 school year. The principals ranked each campus' level of technology integration based on four key indicators, teaching and learning, educator preparation and development, administration and support services and infrastructure for technology. ANOVA and Independent t test were used to determine whether there were statistical significance with regard to the level of technology integration based on geographical location, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. The research uses three working hypotheses with four sub-hypothesis for each. The data revealed that rural school districts have significantly higher scores in the area of teaching and learning than midsize and suburban districts and rural school districts are doing significantly better than midsize school districts in the areas of educator preparation and development. Rural school districts were also doing significantly better than urban, suburban and midsize school districts in the area of infrastructure for technology. Additionally, affluent school districts were doing significantly better than economically disadvantaged school districts in the areas of teaching and learning and educator preparation and development. Further, non-minority school districts are doing significantly better than minority school districts in teaching and learning, educator preparation and development, administrative support services and infrastructure for technology.