A Pseudo Individual Near Real-Time Measurement for Assessing Air Pollution Exposure in Selected Texas Cities
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Air pollution causes severe health effects and economic loss. Many major air-pollution-related studies focus on place-based measures and simulation. Typical place-based air pollution studies cannot portray individuals’ air pollution exposure scenarios. In recent years, individual-based air pollution exposure measures have been developed rapidly. Based on an extensive literature review of place-based geography and people-based geography, air pollution exposure assessment methods (including place-based and individual-based ones), and health effects of air pollution exposure, this dissertation research aims to investigate an innovative modeling approach for assessing individual near real-time air pollution exposure. The first part of the model development is to design a series of near real-time space-time air pollution scenario cubes. Originating from time geography, space-time cubes provide an approach to integrate spatial and temporal air pollution information into a 3D space. The base of space-time cubes represents the variation of air pollution in a 2D geographical space while the height represents time. The second part of the model development is to geovisualize volunteers’ individual real-time space-time trajectories using 3D space-time path maps. The last part of the model development is to integrate space-time cubes and space-time trajectories to develop the pseudo individual near real-time air pollution monitoring (PIRAM in short) models and the derivative models – the integrated pseudo individual near real-time air quality index (PIRAQI in short) models and the integrated pseudo individual near real-time air pollution dose simulation (PIRADS in short) models. Volunteers’ individual diurnal ambient ozone (O3) pollution exposures in Houston, Austin, and San Antonio are modeled in this dissertation research. The contributions of this dissertation research are four-fold. First, it can help in understanding air pollution and individual exposure from a people-based geography perspective. Second, it enriches the individual-based air pollution exposure measure study by emphasizing individual travel behaviors in the individual air pollution exposure context. Third, its results can reveal the characteristics of the individual real-time air pollution exposure, which will contribute to local air pollution policy making. Fourth, the PIRAM platform only needs one handheld device terminal, such as a GPS smartphone, which ensure a good end user experience and potential commercial value.