Inverting the Classroom in College Algebra: An Examination of Student Perceptions and Engagement and Their Effects on Grade Outcomes
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In an inverted college algebra classroom, students viewed videos and took notes outside class and solved problems in class. There were three topics related to the inverted classroom that were of primary concern in this research. One topic was student perceptions, and student perceptions were examined of (a) the inverted classroom as an instructional approach, and (b) the individual elements of an inverted classroom: video viewing, note taking, and problem solving. This research also explored the relationship between perceived learning contributions of elements of an inverted classroom and grade outcomes, and the relationship between levels of engagement with elements of an inverted classroom and grade outcomes.
Most students indicated a preference for a lecture-based class over the inverted college algebra classroom. Student perceptions of video viewing were both positive and negative, whereas overall students held positive perceptions in regard to problem solving and note taking. Multiple regression analysis indicated that perceived learning contributions of video viewing and note taking were associated with grade outcome. Multiple regression analysis also indicated that level of engagement with video viewing had the greatest influence on grade outcome (in comparison to level of engagement with either note taking or problem solving) for approximately 20% of the students in the sample. For approximately 75% of the students in the sample, level of engagement with note taking had the greatest influence on their grade, followed by level of engagement with problem solving, and then level of engagement with video viewing.
Recommendations were made for future research, teaching practice, and preparation of an inverted classroom for college algebra. Recommendations include investigating the effectiveness of the inverted college algebra classroom, placing a greater emphasis on note taking, and producing videos no longer than 20 to 30 minutes in length.