From Grassroots to Treetops: A Scope-of-Behavior Matrix for Environmental Movement Organizations that Considers Place and Scale
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Environmental movement organizations (EMOs) vary in structure and function, with different forms of outreach, financial characteristics, and motivations. They also differ in terms of the geographic areas on behalf of which they take action. Using a mixed-method, case-study approach, this study develops a scope-of-behavior matrix for environmental movement organizations based on four fundamental characteristics: outreach, motivation, finances, and geographic scope. These characteristics are compared through statistical and content analysis to examine whether and in what ways they are associated. In addition, this study explores whether the geographic scope of an organization has any influence over the other organizational characteristics within the scope-of-behavior matrix. This study reveals 15 statistically significant associations among the 11 variables defining the scope of behavior of EMOs; however, it fails to show that an EMO’s geographic scope has influence over other EMO characteristics. Regardless of the power of geographic scope to influence an EMO, understanding the relationships that exist among organizational characteristics may benefit environmental organizations as they develop their tactics, programs, and goals.