Family arrest and separation during the Holocaust in Italy
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Despite the fact that families are specifically targeted by genocide perpetrators, genocide and Holocaust researchers have paid relatively little attention to how patterns of victimization of individuals might differ from those of families. This thesis contributes to the literature by examining Jewish families' victimization during the Holocaust in Italy from a GIScience and historical geographical perspective. Starting from a large GIS database of individual victims of the Holocaust in Italy, a methodology was devised to identify family groups from individuals' lists and to determine if and when families were separated. Then individuals' and families' experiences were compared, focusing on spatio-temporal patterns, the frequency and type of family separations, and the effect explanatory of variables-such as Italians or foreign born families, nationality of perpetrators, gender, and age-on the degree and frequency of family separation and overall vulnerability. Although aggregate statistics do not show considerable differences between individuals and families, marked spatio-temporal patterns arose, especially as it concerns the nationality of both perpetrators and victims. Those patterns also suggest a high vulnerability of family to round-ups. Moreover, statistical analysis revealed that some individuals-such as children, Jews born in Italy, those arrested in 1944 or 1945, and those arrested by Italians or by Italians with German-were more likely to be separated than others, and that family separations tended to occur in medium or small camps and prisons.