Operation of Net-Zero Carbon Charging Stations with Renewable Energy Integration
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The goal of this project is to develop a quantitative approach for designing and operating charging stations using intermittent renewable energy. In particular wind turbines (WT) and solar photovoltaic panels (PV) are integrated into charging stations in order to displace fossil fuel based energy and reduce carbon emissions. This study performs a feasibility analysis of implementing a cost-effective and environmentally- benign charge station for electric vehicles. The grid-connected distributed generation system consists of WT, solar PV, battery storage packs and a net metering system. The capacity of WT, solar PV panels, and the battery system are decision variables which will be optimized. Due to the intermittency of wind and solar generation, the output power of WT and PV is not guaranteed. Quantitative decision models are formulated and allow for simulating the output of wind and solar generation hour-by-hour during the course of a year. The optimal size or capacity of WT, PV and battery is determined to minimize the annualized charge station cost. Ten candidate cities where charging station will be constructed are chosen from different areas of world, representing the variation and diversity of wind speed and weather conditions. Even if the cost parameters in the optimization model are identical, the optimal decision on the capacity of WT, PV and battery could be different due to the diversity of climatic profiles. Our numerical results show that charging stations can attain net-zero carbon emission with onsite renewable energy resources in regions where medium wind speed or sunny weather prevails.