"Hips Don't Lie": A Validation Study of the Albanese Metric Sex Estimation Method for the Proximal Femur on a Modern North American Population
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When estimating the sex of a skeletonized individual, the pubic bone of the os coxae is considered the best source of information due to its sexually dimorphic traits. However, as the pubic bone can be easily damaged in both bioarchaeological and forensic anthropological contexts, the development of non-pelvic sex estimation methods has become crucial. Albanese (2008) introduced an alternative method of sex estimation that involves measurements from the proximal femur (thigh bone). The use of three newly defined landmarks and measurements between these landmarks create a triangle on the proximal femur and reflects the angle of the femoral neck. The greater width of the female pelvis necessary for childbirth requires concomitant adaptations in other bones including the proximal femur. Albanese's method aims to capture the variation in the angle of the femoral neck as a result of the sex-based differences in the pubic bone. The original study generated logistic regression equations for sex estimation that are not population specific and Albanese achieved a 95-97% allocation accuracy when distinguishing between males and females. The purpose of the current study was to apply Albanese's metric sex estimation method to a sample of identified individuals from the Texas State University Donated Skeletal Collection (n = 100, including 50 males and 50 females) in order to validate or negate his method as a universally applicable approach.