A Structural Analysis of Texas Law and Policy Processes Relating to College and Career Readiness with Emphasis on Hispanics
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This study is a structural analysis of Texas law and policy processes relating to college and career readiness with emphasis on Hispanics and implications for educators. The study is presented in two separate, but related articles. The first article (chapter two) reports on the structural limitations of crafting Texas statutes that created college and career readiness standards with a focus on the impact to Hispanic students and the implication for Texas educators. Archival data from the Texas Constitution and Texas statues were analyzed using Bolman and Deal’s structural framework to identify these limitations. The study reveals part-time legislators and restrictions on legislative sessions yield incremental, mediocre solutions. Recommendations for structural adjustments and increased educator input for state lawmaking are made. The second article (chapter three) reports on the structural limitations of crafting Texas administrative rules that implement college and career readiness standards with a focus on the impact to Hispanic students and the implications for Texas educators and residents. Archival data from the state’s education code, the Texas Government Code, the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), the Texas Register, publications of the Texas Education Agency (TEA), the State Board of Education (SBOE), and the Texas Higher Education Board (THECB), as well as relevant case law were analyzed using structural and normative administrative law principles to identify these limitations. The study reveals that education policy rules, though they impact a vast statewide population, carry no major rule status; that these rules are crafted under strict time constraints; and, that the rules are generally considered substantially compliant when judicially reviewed. Recommendations for structural adjustments and increased educator input for state rulemaking are made.