The Influence of Individual Characteristics on Police Cynicism and Police Job Satisfaction
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Police cynicism was first defined and explored by Niederhoffer (1967). Cynicism has since been attributed as a negative characteristic that is considered an inevitable outcome of the police profession (Caplan, 2003; Graves, 1996; Niederrhoffer, 1967). This negative characteristic of the police profession is well-studied and has been considered at both the individual and occupational level (Caplan, 2003). Similarly, police job satisfaction has been well studied and has been shown to be associated with police cynicism (Johnson, 2012). While both police cynicism and police job satisfaction are well studied, specific police attitudes and their association with job satisfaction and police cynicism are lacking. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of individual characteristics, such as conservatism, intercultural sensitivity and multicultural attitudes to police cynicism and police job satisfaction. This study assessed the degree of association between conservatism, multicultural attitudes, intercultural sensitivity, and their relationship with both police cynicism and police job satisfaction. It was hypothesized that there would be a negative association between police cynicism and job satisfaction. It was also hypothesized that lower levels of multicultural attitudes and intercultural sensitivity would be associated with higher levels of police cynicism and lower levels of job satisfaction. Similarly, it was hypothesized that higher levels of conservatism would be associated with higher levels of cynicism and lower levels of job satisfaction. Results revealed that police cynicism and job satisfaction were negatively associated with higher levels of cynicism found to be associated with lower levels of job satisfaction. However, the proposed associations between multicultural attitudes, intercultural sensitivity, conservatism and police cynicism were not significant. Similarly, the associations proposed between job satisfaction, multicultural attitudes, intercultural sensitivity, and conservatism were not found to be significant.