Re-conceptualizing Food Insecurity with a New, Multi-dimensional Scale
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Background: ▪ USDA's Food Security Survey Module - measure of food insecurity; ▪ Used for national monitoring and surveillance in Canada and US; ▪ FSSM has important limitations. Objective: To develop and evaluate a new, multi-dimensional measure of food insecurity for use in programs and research. Methods: ▪ Cross-sectional data (2014-2015) from prospective project; ▫ Voices Into Action: The Families, Food, and Health Project; ▪ Diverse sample of mothers from North Carolina (n=109); ▪ Qualitative and quantitative data; ▫ In-depth interviews; ▫ Surveys; ▪ Four-Dimensional Food Insecurity Scale (4D-FIS) reflects four dimensions of food insecurity: ▫ Quantitative; ▫ Qualitative; ▫ Psychological; ▫ Social; ▪ Categorization of severity: ▫ Food secure; ▫ Mildly food insecure; ▫ Severely food insecure; ▪ Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the hypothesized, four-factor structure of 4D-FIS; ▪ Concordance analysis to compare categorization between the two food insecurity scales: 1) 4D-FIS and 2) USDA FSSM adult scale (2); Results: ▪ Data supported the four-factor model; ▪ 4D-FIS categorized more participants as food insecure vs. USDA scale; ▪ Fair to moderate agreement in categorization between scales; Conclusions: ▪ Promising alternative measure; ▪ Implications for programs, interventions, and research applications.