Ren as a Guideline for Solving Military Medical Ethics Violations in S.E.R.E.
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To remedy the high risk of PTSD that military personnel are subjected to, James Rowe, a U.S. Army member and Vietnam prisoner of war, developed Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) training. During the Resistance portion of SERE, military personnel are subjected to stress inoculating environments prior to deployment in order to build their stress resilience— a key contributor to preventing PTSD (Taylor & Schatz). In order to create a stress inoculating environment, military personnel are tortured in mock prisoner-of-war camps. However, recent evidence challenges the effectiveness of this program. A lack of objective stress measures, absence of standard training guidelines, deficient evaluation in non-clinical environments, and inadequate repeated acute stress measurement all contribute to the questionable effectiveness of the Resistance program. In fact, in personal anecdotes and government documents filing lawsuit against the military, participants claim that Resistance training induced PTSD rather than prevented it.