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dc.contributor.authorLitchke, Lyn G. ( Orcid Icon 0000-0001-8455-3873 )
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Ting ( Orcid Icon 0000-0003-2377-5370 )
dc.contributor.authorCastro, Stephanie ( )
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-22T14:30:33Z
dc.date.available2019-07-22T14:30:33Z
dc.date.issued2018-01
dc.identifier.citationLitchke, L. G., Liu, T., & Castro, S. (2018). Effects of Multimodal Mandala Yoga on Social and Emotional Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Study. International Journal of Yoga, 11(1), pp. 59–65.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0973-6131
dc.identifier.urihttps://digital.library.txstate.edu/handle/10877/8362
dc.description.abstractContext: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships. Aims: The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD. Subjects and Methods: Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks. Multimodal Mandala yoga comprised 26 circular partner/group poses, color and tracing sheets, rhythmic chanting, yoga cards, and games. Treatment and Research Institute for ASD Social Skills Assessment (TSSA) scores were collected before and after the eight yoga sessions. The Modified Facial Mood Scale (MFMS) was used to observe mood changes before and after each yoga class. Paired sample t-tests were conducted on TSSA and MFMS scores to compare social and emotional differences post the 4-week camp. Narrative field notes were documented after each of the eight yoga sessions. Results: A significant improvement from pre- to post-test was found in overall TSSA (t(4) = −5.744, P = 0.005) and on respondent to initiation (t(4) = −3.726, P = 0.020), initiating interaction (t(4) = −8.5, P = 0.039), and affective understanding and perspective taking subscales (t(4) = −5.171 P = 0.007). Youth's MFMS scores increased from 80% to 100% at the end of eight yoga sessions demonstrating a pleasant or positive mood. Thematic analysis of the narrative notes identified three key factors associated with the yoga experience: (a) enhanced mood and emotional expression, (b) increased empathy toward others, and (c) improved teamwork skills. Conclusion: This multimodal Mandala yoga training has implication for developing positive social and emotional skills for youth with ASD.en_US
dc.formatText
dc.format.extent14 pages
dc.format.medium1 file (.pdf)
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherWolters Kluweren_US
dc.sourceInternational Journal of Yoga, 2018, Vol. 11, No. 1, p. 59-65.
dc.subjectEmotion
dc.subjectSocial skills
dc.subjectYoga
dc.subjectAutismen_US
dc.titleEffects of Multimodal Mandala Yoga on Social and Emotional Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Studyen_US
dc.typepublishedVersion
txstate.documenttypeArticle
dc.identifier.doi10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_80_16
dc.rights.licenseCreative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.
dc.description.departmentHealth and Human Performance


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