miR-195 Targets Cyclin D3 and Survivin to Modulate the Tumorigenesis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
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miR-195 has recently been reported to function as a tumor suppressor in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanisms by which miR-195 represses the tumorigenesis of NSCLC cells are not fully understood. We performed a high-throughput screen using an miRNA mimic library and confirmed the identification of miR-195 as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC. We demonstrated that overexpression or induced expression of miR-195 in lung tumors slows tumor growth and that repression of miR-195 accelerates tumor growth. In addition, we found that knockout of miR-195 promotes cancer cell growth. We demonstrated that miR-195 targets cyclin D3 to cause cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and that miR-195 targets survivin to induce apoptosis and senescence in NSCLC cells. Overexpression of cyclin D3 or survivin reverses the effects of miR-195 in NSCLC cells. Through the analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we confirmed that the expression of miR-195 is lower in tumors than in adjacent normal tissues and that low expression of miR-195 is associated with poor survival in both lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients. Specifically, we found that BIRC5, which codes for survivin, is upregulated in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma tissues and that high expression of BIRC5 is associated with poor survival in adenocarcinoma, but not squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, the ratio of miR-195 level to BIRC5 level is associated with both recurrence-free and overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that the miR-195/BIRC5 axis is a potential target for treatment of lung adenocarcinoma specifically, and NSCLC in general.