Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Spatial Distribution of Potentially Toxic Elements in Groundwater Sources in Southwestern Nigeria
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The study investigated the concentration of potentially toxic heavy metals (PTHM) in groundwater sources (hand-dug wells and boreholes), spatial distribution, source apportionment, and health risk impact on local inhabitants in Ogun state. One hundred and eight water samples from 36 locations were analysed for Cr, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca and Al. Mean values of 0.013, 0.003, 0.010, 0.088, 0.004 and 3.906 mg/L were obtained for Pb, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al respectively at Iju district. Meanwhile, the average values of Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations at Atan district were 0.008, 0.0023, 0.011, 0.003, and 1.319 mg/L respectively. Results also revealed that the 44.4% and 11.13% of the borehole and well-water samples surpassed the World Health Organization limits for Pb at Atan. In Iju, the concentration of Pb and Al were relatively high, exceeding the stipulated standard in 100% of the samples. The Multivariate statistical analysis employed produced principal factors that accounted for 78.674% and 86.753% of the variance at Atan and Iju region respectively. Based on this, PTHM were traced to geogenic sources (weathering, dissolution, leaching) and anthropogenic emissions from industrial activities. In addition, the hazard quotient values obtained from the health risk assessment identified potential non-carcinogenic risk due to Pb via ingestion route. Ni was found to have high carcinogenic risk on adult and children, having exceeded the threshold limit. The outcome of the carcinogenic risk assessment revealed that 88.67% (for adults) and 1.12% (for children) of the cancer risk values surpassed the specified limits at Iju, whereas the cancer risk values were considerably lesser at Atan. In conclusion, the report of this study should serve as a beacon that will spark up strategic planning, comprehensive water resource management, and extensive treatment schemes in order to address the health complications linked with environmental pollution.